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How is promotion different from advertising?


One of the key aspects of executing a successful event is clear communication. Potential attendees must be able to receive information regarding the event easily and effectively. This is achieved through the concept of promotion.  Although promotion is commonly confused with advertising, it is actually much more.  In fact, promotion can be described as all marketing communication, which includes everything from building relationships with the public to door-knocking sales campaigns. Strategic coordination of each element of promotion will help to ensure event success. Promotion is similar to a puzzle, in that each piece is different but necessary for completion. The main elements of promotion are advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion. These elements are frequently referred to as the promotional mix.

Advertising – Traditionally, advertising consists of print media and broadcast media. However, innovative technology has changed the way many entities advertise. With the decrease in newspaper circulation, print media, such as newspaper ads, is moving towards a more electronic approach. The same is true for broadcast media.  For example, due to the growth in satellite radio and music streaming, an increasing number of people no longer listen to traditional FM radio stations. Therefore, radio advertisements do not reach the mass amounts of listeners it once did. Being able to change and adjust advertising methods is imperative to effective promotion.

Public Relations – Public relations is a marketing activity designed to protect your public image. There are two types of public relations, proactive and reactive.  Proactive public relations can be described as presenting your image in a positive manner. For example, issuing a public statement about a generous contribution to a community park creates a positive image. Reactive public relations is used to change the public perception of a negative situation.  Reactive public relations is commonly referred to as crisis management and is frequently used in the entertainment industry.  Whether it’s an athlete that gets arrested or a political statement made by an actor, public statements to “smooth the waters” are made on a regular basis. Public relations communication can be made in the form of a press release, press kit, or press conference.

Personal Selling – Direct contact with a consumer makes the promotional process more personal. That is why personal selling is an important element. In a world that lacks personal interaction, potential consumers appreciate face-to-face contact when making a buying decision.

Sales Promotion – Sales promotions are developed in order to encourage potential consumers to purchase a product. Sales promotions can be in the form of loyalty programs, coupons, rebates, contests, and much more. Marketers must be creative when developing sales promotions and also consider the psychological aspect of consumer buying habits. Knowing the way a consumer thinks is key when developing sales promotions. For example, is a BOGO deal more appealing than a rebate or coupon?


Upon completion of this lesson, students will develop the skills through which they may:

  • Develop promotional strategies to be used for the concert fundraiser.

  • Design graphics for marketing and promotional purposes, such as logos, t-shirts, and ticket design.

  • Develop content for use in marketing communications to create event interest.

  • Discuss and implement ideas to increase venue attractiveness, such as amenities and accessibility.

  • Develop and maintain an electronic promotion or social media platform.

Click HERE to see the full lesson plan with activities. 




Literacy Standards for Grades 6-12: History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects

College and Career Readiness Reading Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12


Reading 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inference from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

Reading 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

Reading 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

Reading 10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. 


Literacy Standards for Grades 6-12: History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects

College and Career Readiness Writing Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12


Writing 2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Writing 4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Writing 6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

Writing 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Writing 8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

Writing 9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Writing 10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.


Literacy Standards for Grades 6-12: History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening for Grades 6-12


Literacy 1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

Literacy 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

Literacy 3: Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Literacy 4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Literacy 5: Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.

Literacy 6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.


Literacy Standards for Grades 6-12: History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language for Grades 6-12


Language 1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Language 4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

Language 6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.




1. Describe the impact of economics, economic systems, and entrepreneurship on marketing.



MK 1.5: Describe marketing's role and function in business.


4. Plan, monitor and manage the day-to-day activities required for continued marketing business operations.


MK 4.8: Explain marketing research activities to develop or revise the marketing plan.

MK 4.9: Utilize marketing information to manage and perform marketing responsibilities.


5. Describe career opportunities and the means to achieve those opportunities in each of the Marketing Career Pathways.


MK 5.2: Develop personal traits to foster career advancement in marketing.

MK 5.6: Employ entrepreneurial discovery strategies in marketing.


8. Obtain, develop, maintain and improve a product or service mix in response to market opportunities.


MK 8.2: Generate product ideas to contribute to ongoing business success.

MK 8.4: Employ product-mix strategies to meet customer expectations.

MK 8.5: Position products/services to acquire the desired business image.

MK 8.6: Position company to acquire the desired business image.


9. Communicate information about products, services, images, and/or ideas to achieve the desired outcome.



MK 9.1: Acquire a foundational knowledge of promotion to understand its nature and scope.

MK 9.2: Describe promotional channels used to communicate with targeted audiences.

MK 9.3: Explain the use of an advertisement's components to communicate with targeted audiences.

MK 9.4: Discuss the use of public relations activities to communicate with targeted audiences.

MK 9.6: Manage promotional activities to maximize return on promotional efforts.





I.  Foundations of Communication – Communicate in a clear, complete, concise, correct, and courteous manner on personal and professional levels.

II. Societal Communication – apply basic social communication skills in personal and professional situations.

III. Workplace Communication - Incorporate appropriate leadership and supervision techniques, customer service strategies, and personal ethics standards to communicate effectively with various business constituencies.

IV. Technological Communication - Use technology to enhance the effectiveness of communication.




V. Statistics and Probability - Analyze and interpret data using common statistical procedures.




II. Marketing - Analyze customer groups and develop a plan to identify, reach, and keep customers in a specific target market.

Information Technology


IV. Input Technologies – Use various input technologies to enter and manipulate information appropriately.

VI. Interactive Media - Use multimedia software to create media-rich projects.

VII. Web Development and Design - Design, develop, test, implement, update, and evaluate web solutions.

VIII. Information Retrieval and Synthesis – Gather, evaluate, use, cite, and disseminate information from technology sources.




I. Foundations of Marketing - Recognize the customer-oriented nature of marketing and analyze the impact of marketing activities on the individual, business, and society.

III. External Factors - Analyze the influence of external factors on marketing.

IV. The Marketing Mix - Analyze the elements of the marketing mix, their interrelationships, and how they are used in the marketing process.

V. Marketing Research - Analyze the role of marketing research in decision making.

VI. The Marketing Plan - Describe the elements, design, and purposes of a marketing plan.

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